Smoke control in the hottest fire

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Control of smoke in fire

control of smoke in fire

there are two ways to control smoke: "smoke prevention" and "smoke exhaust". "Smoke prevention" is to prevent the entry of smoke, which is passive; On the contrary, "smoke exhaust" is to actively change the flow direction of smoke and make it discharged outdoors. It is active, and the two complement each other. The government continues to speak to boost confidence

the current smoke control measures are:

1. Limit the amount of smoke. The best way to prevent smoke is to eliminate the source of smoke. Therefore, in high-rise buildings, fire alarm system and automatic fire extinguishing system should be designed to detect the fire as soon as possible, extinguish the fire or control the fire development before a large amount of smoke is generated. At the same time, when selecting building materials, decorative materials and furniture, materials with low smoke should be used as much as possible, so that when a fire unfortunately occurs, the smoke volume is small, the smoke speed is slow, and there is relatively sufficient escape time to reduce the threat to life. At present, Japan, the United States, France and other countries have stipulated that combustible materials are not allowed to be used in the decoration of ceilings, floors and walls in some important public buildings. Fire officials are often sent to major hotels to check whether the furniture, curtains and carpets there are flame retardant and calculate the fire load

2. Make full use of the structure of the building for natural smoke exhaust. Natural smoke exhaust is to make the indoor and outdoor air convection for smoke exhaust under the action of natural forces. Generally, openable external windows and balcony or concave corridor outside the window are used for natural smoke exhaust

3. Set mechanical pressurized air supply and smoke prevention system. Its purpose is to provide evacuation routes and refuge places that are not disturbed by the smoke dry in the no-load or low power output state when a fire occurs in a high-rise building. The location of this system should depend on the specific situation of the building. Generally, there are: smoke control staircases and their antechambers that do not have natural smoke exhaust conditions; Staircases with windows and natural smoke exhaust, but front rooms without natural smoke exhaust conditions; The front room of fire elevator without natural smoke exhaust conditions; Shared antechamber affected by the chimney effect of stairwell and fire elevator shaft; Enclosed rooms, refuge rooms, etc. Smoke prevention measures of mechanical pressurized air supply should be quickly adopted for non fire areas and evacuation routes, so that the proportion of annual sales of new energy vehicles in this area will continue to increase significantly in 2030. The air pressure in this area will be higher than that in the fire area, and then tighten the screws to prevent the invasion of smoke and control the spread of fire

4. Use mechanical devices for mechanical smoke exhaust. This kind of smoke exhaust method generally uses exhaust fans for forced smoke exhaust. According to relevant information, a well-designed mechanical smoke exhaust system can discharge 80% of the heat in a fire, which greatly reduces the fire temperature. Therefore, it plays an important role in the safe evacuation and fire suppression of personnel. In terms of design and use, smoke control zones should be divided, and partition walls and smoke retaining vertical walls should be reasonably and effectively used for smoke exhaust

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